Category: Research Bias


What Is a Ceiling Effect? | Definition & Examples

A ceiling effect is a phenomenon that occurs when an instrument or measure used to assess a construct or trait reaches its limit of sensitivity, such that scores at or near the top of the scale no longer differentiate between individuals. In other words, a ceiling effect is observed when the upper limit of a […]

Read More

What Is Optimism Bias? | Definition & Examples.

optimism bias refers to the human tendency to overestimate the likelihood of positive events and underestimate the likelihood of negative events. This bias can affect a person’s decision-making and lead to a false sense of security or unrealistic expectations. For example, a person with optimism bias may believe that they are less likely to get […]

Read More

What Is Ecological Fallacy? |

Ecological fallacy is a statistical error that occurs when inferences about individuals are made based solely on aggregated group-level data. This fallacy occurs when researchers make conclusions about individuals based on data collected at the group level instead of data collected at the individual level. For example, suppose a researcher wants to study the relationship […]

Read More

What Is Actor-Observer Bias? Examples

Actor-observer bias is a psychological phenomenon. People tend to attribute others’ behavior to their dispositions. People attribute their own behavior to situational factors. This creates a bias in perception and explanation of behavior. It can lead to misunderstandings and conflicts. Awareness and balance are important when evaluating behavior. What is actor-observer bias? The actor-observer bias […]

Read More

What Is Affinity Bias? | Definition & Examples

Affinity bias is a form of implicit bias that occurs when people tend to favor, or have a greater affinity for, others who are similar to them in some way. This can include similarities in race, ethnicity, gender, age, religion, education, socio-economic background, or any other personal characteristic. This type of bias can influence a […]

Read More

What Is Primacy Bias? | Definition & Example

Primacy bias, also known as the “first-impression bias,” refers to the tendency for people to give more weight to information encountered early on in a series, while disregarding information encountered later. In other words, people tend to form their opinions based on the first pieces of information they receive, and those first impressions persist even […]

Read More

What Is Explicit Bias? | Definition & Examples

Explicit bias is a conscious and intentional form of prejudice that people hold against certain groups of individuals based on race, gender, religion, sexual orientation, or other personal characteristics. It can also refer to attitudes and beliefs that a person holds towards certain objects or practices. In this article, we’ll take a closer look at […]

Read More

What Is Implicit Bias? | Definition & Examples

Implicit bias refers to attitudes or stereotypes that unconsciously affect our understanding, actions, and decisions. These biases can impact an individual’s behavior even in the absence of conscious prejudice. They can affect how people treat others based on factors such as race, gender, age, or sexual orientation. Examples of Implicit Bias: making a conscious effoIt’s […]

Read More

What is Negativity Bias? | Definition & Examples

Negativity bias refers to the psychological phenomenon where negative events, thoughts, or emotions have a stronger and more lasting impact on a person’s mind and behavior than positive or neutral experiences. This means that people tend to give more weight to negative information and are more likely to remember negative events than positive ones. The […]

Read More